The Battle of Bayan - May 2, 1902 (continued)

    By the time the expedition arrived at Bayan, it was down to about 600 effective rifles and the pack mules had been doubled to 80 to help make up for the loss of the Maguindanao cargadores. Baldwin's objective was the capture of two prominent cottas, or forts about a thousand yards apart on a high ridge overlooking Lake Lanao, at an altitude of about 2,900 feet. The first, and highest was Binadayan, the redoubt of the Sultan of Bayan who had signaled in writing his intent to resist the Americans. Men with rifles could be clearly seen on the walls of Binadayan by a reconnaissance party, and a red flag, the sign of war, was flying at its staff. An ultimatum was given to surrender the fort before 12:00 noon the next day. Binadayan was taken fairly quickly after about a one-hour fight, with only one American wounded and a small number of Moros killed. Apparently prior to the assault the Sultan and most of his men moved across the small valley to the second, larger cotta, Pandapatan, that of the Sultan of Pandapatan, who was the war leader of the defense. About 600 Maranao warriors, including about 150 sent by other datus, made their stand at Pandapatan. Lacking in scaling ladders, running low on ammunition, and coming under a fierce, hand-to-hand counterattack outside the walls, the Americans the assault when dark came, accompanied by lightning, heavy fog, and a deluge of rain. They spent the rest of a miserable night slowly withdrawing to Binadayan, with members of the 25th Field Artillery courageously crawling out on the field to retrieve the wounded and dead. But the next morning, a white flag of surrender flew from Pandapatan.

A Map and drawings (below) made at the scene of the battlefield, Binadayan, and Pandapatan

Drawing Cotta Pandapatan from Binadayan

Drawing Cotta Binadayan from Pandapatan

Layout of Cotta Ninadayan

Layout of Cotta Pandapatan

Photograph of Cotta Binadayan from Cotta Pandapatan

The view from Cotta Binadayan to the south end of Lake Lanao 

Binadayan shortly after its capture

Pandapatan after the battle

    Shown below are the walls of one of the cottas and sharpened bamboo sticks placed around the perimeter and in concealed pits.

    22 year-old 1st Lt. Hugh Drum was the adjutant for the 2nd Battalion. His was an unusual route into the Army. He was direct-commissioned as a 2nd Lt. at age 19 while attending Boston College under an unusual provision of the law. His father, a Captain, was killed at San Juan Hill in Cuba in 1898 and a special bill permitted the President to make such appointments. He was on the field at Bayan and at one point helped another man hoist a soldier onto their shoulders to fire over a parapet. Despite the contention of his home town newspaper that he practically "led the charge", he was not mentioned in orders nor in the after-battle report. Bayan would be the only fighting he would see in Moroland. Politically savvy, Drum rose in the Army and in World War I, as a Colonel, became Pershing's Chief of Staff for the AEF. But on the eve of World War II, although next in line through seniority, he was passed over for Chief of Staff by Franklin Roosevelt in favor of George Marshall. Fort Drum, New York was named in his honor.


                                      1st Lt. Hugh Drum - 1902                                       Boston Globe - June 25, 1902